Pharmacotherapy Specialty Recertification Literature Study: Module 1A-C (Cert # L219129)

ACPE Numbers: Various – see listing below
Pre-Sale Date: 03/17/2021
Content Release Date: 04/14/2021
Expiration Dates: 10/19/2021
Activity Type: Application-based
CE Credits: 15.00 hours (BPS and ACPE)
Activity Fee: $55 (ASHP member); $110 (non-member)

Accreditation for Pharmacists

The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Target Audience

These Literature Studies are designed to help board-certified pharmacists who are seeking recertification credit hours to maintain their Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS).

Activity Overview

The Literature Study Module is intended for board certified pharmacists in need of recertification credit and is designed based on the content outline developed by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS). This module consists of 3 online home study activities (see table below). Each activity is designed to assess the learners’ ability to analyze and apply peer-selected contemporary articles to practice and includes a short video for enhanced learning and understanding. 

Module 1A: This module focuses on infectious diseases. It includes articles related to antimicrobial dosing, treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections, and surgical prophylaxis.

Module 1B: This module focuses on pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. It includes articles related to anticoagulation, treatment of pulmonary embolism, and the use of novel therapies for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. 

Module 1C: This module focuses on neurologic diseases. It includes articles related to the management Parkinson disease, epilepsy, and the treatment of cerebral edema in neurocritical care patients. 

Learners will be required to review the content and complete the associated online assessments. The learner must be able to correctly answer the questions based upon their interpretation of the content, as well as “baseline specialty specific knowledge and/or easily retrievable information.” For purposes of this Literature Study, “baseline specialty specific knowledge and/or easily retrievable information” is defined as product labeling and well-established standards of practice in the specialty practice. 

These activities are part of the ASHP professional development program for BCPS recertification approved by the BPS. 

Recertification Credit*

Board certified pharmacists are eligible to receive up to 15 hours of recertification credit for completing this module. To earn recertification credit, learners must review the activity content and successfully complete the online assessments by the deadline. Only completed assessments will be eligible for credit; no partial or incomplete assessments will be processed. You are allowed only one attempt to successfully complete this assessment.

Learning Activity

ACPE Number

Credit Hours

*Assessment Pass Point

Pharmacotherapy Recertification Literature Study Module 1A: Infectious diseases

0204-0000-21-957-H01-P

6

73%

Pharmacotherapy Recertification Literature Study Module 1B: Cardiovascular, Endocrine, and Pulmonary Diseases

0204-0000-21-958-H01-P

5

72%

Pharmacotherapy Recertification Literature Study Module 1C: Neurology

0204-0000-21-959-H01-P

4

75%

 

Articles and Learning Objectives 

Module 1A: Infectious diseases
ACPE Number: 0204-0000-21-957-H01-P

This module focuses on infectious diseases. It includes articles related to antimicrobial dosing, treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections, and surgical prophylaxis.

Rybak MJ, Le J, Lodise TP et al. Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: a revised consensus guideline and review by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2020; 77:835-63. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the revised consensus guideline from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) for therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections.
  • Apply dosing and therapeutic monitoring recommendations for vancomycin in patients with serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections based on the 2020  revised consensus guideline and review from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP). 

Cusumano JA, Klinker KP, Huttner A et al. Towards precision medicine: therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing of vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics to maximize effectiveness and minimize toxicity. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2020; 77:1104-12. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the use of precision dosing through therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics to maximize effectiveness and minimize toxicity in critically ill, obese, and older adult.
  • Develop recommendations for the use of precision dosing through therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics to maximize effectiveness and minimize toxicity in critically ill, obese, and older adult. 

Abdul-Aziz MH, Alffenaar JWC, Bassetti M et al. Antimicrobial therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill adult patients: a position paper. Intensive Care Med. 2020: 46:1127-53 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the position paper from the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology (IATDMCT), and International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC) about the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for antimicrobial agents in critically ill adults.
  • Develop recommendations for the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents as part of routine clinical practice for critically ill adults. 

Lodise TP, Rosenkranz SL, Finnemeyer M et al. The Emperor's New Clothes: PRospective Observational Evaluation of the Association Between Initial VancomycIn Exposure and Failure Rates Among ADult HospitalizEd Patients With Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections (PROVIDE). Clin Infect Dis. 2020; 70:1536-45 

Learning Objectives:

  • Apply the efficacy and safety findings from the PROVIDE study to the dosing of vancomycin based on area-under-the-curve (AUC) thresholds in hospitalized adults with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections.
  • Recommend appropriate vancomycin dosing and pharmacokinetic monitoring for hospitalized adults with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections. 

Tong SYC, Lye DC, Yahav D et al. Effect of vancomycin or daptomycin with vs without an antistaphylococcal β-lactam on mortality, bacteremia, relapse, or treatment failure in patients with MRSA bacteremia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020; 323:527-37 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the methods used in the CAMERA2 study of the addition of an antistaphylococcal ß-lactam antibiotic to standard vancomycin or daptomycin therapy for adults with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia.
  • Apply the efficacy and safety findings from the study of adding an antistaphylococcal ß-lactam antibiotic to standard vancomycin or daptomycin therapy for adults with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia.
  • Develop recommendations for the addition of an antistaphylococcal beta-lactam to standard vancomycin or daptomycin therapy for adults with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. 

Branch-Elliman W, O’Brien W, Strymish J et al. Association of duration and type of surgical prophylaxis with antimicrobial-associated adverse events. JAMA Surg. 2019; 154:590-8 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the study of the association of the type and duration of postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis with adverse events.
  • Develop recommendations for the type and duration of postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. 

Module 1B: Cardiovascular, Endocrine, and Pulmonary Diseases
ACPE Number: 0204-0000-21-958-H01-P 

This module focuses on pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. It includes articles related to anticoagulation, treatment of pulmonary embolism, and the use of novel therapies for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. 

Duffett L, Castellucci LA, Forgie MA. Pulmonary embolism: update on management and controversies. BMJ. 2020; 370: m2177. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the epidemiology of pulmonary embolism (PE) and recent advances and current controversies in its diagnosis and treatment.
  • Develop recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). 

Hanni C, Petrovitch E, Ali M et al. Outcomes associated with apixaban vs warfarin in patients with renal dysfunction. Blood Adv. 2020; 4:2366-71. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the study comparing outcomes from the use of apixaban with warfarin in patients with severe renal dysfunction.
  • Develop recommendations for the use of oral anticoagulation in patients with severe renal dysfunction. 

Covert K, Branam DL. Direct-acting oral anticoagulant use at extremes of body weight: literature review and recommendations. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2020; 77: 865-76. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the literature review and recommendations by Covert and colleagues for the use of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with high or low body weights.
  • Develop recommendations for the use of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with high or low body weights. 

Tomaselli GF, Maheffey KW, Cuker A, et al. 2020 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on management of bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulants. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 76: 594-622. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the 2020 American College of Cardiology (ACC) expert consensus decision pathway on management of bleeding in patients receiving oral anticoagulants.
  • Develop recommendations for the management of bleeding in patients receiving direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). 

Das SR, Everett BM, Birtcher KK et al. 2020 expert consensus decision pathway on novel therapies for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 76: 1117-45. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the 2020 American College of Cardiology expert consensus decision pathway (ECDP) on novel therapies for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Develop recommendations for the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 

Module 1C: Neurology
ACPE Number: 0204-0000-21-959-H01-P 

This module focuses on neurologic diseases. It includes articles related to the management Parkinson disease, epilepsy, and the treatment of cerebral edema in neurocritical care patients. 

Cook AM, Jones GM, et al. Guidelines for the acute treatment of cerebral edema in neurocritical care patients. Neurocrit Care 2020; 32: 647-666.  

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the Neurocritical Care Society guidelines for the acute treatment of cerebral edema in neurocritical care patients.
  • Develop recommendations for the acute treatment of cerebral edema in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), traumatic brain injury (TBI), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), bacterial or tubercular meningitis, or hepatic encephalopathy (HE). 

Armstrong MJ, Okun MS. Diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease: a review. JAMA. 2020; 323:548-60. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of Parkinson disease.
  • Develop recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease. 

Kapur J, Elm J, Chamberlain JM, et al. Randomized trial of three anticonvulsant medications for status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2019; 381:2103-13. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial (ESETT) of anticonvulsant therapy for children and adults with benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus.
  • Develop recommendations for the use of anticonvulsant therapy for children and adults with benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus. 

Chamberlain JM, Kapur J, Shinnar S et al.  Efficacy of levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate for established status epilepticus by age group (ESETT): a double-blind, responsive-adaptive, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2020; 395:1217-24. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the extension of the Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial (ESETT) of anticonvulsant therapy for children and adults with benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus.
  • Develop recommendations for the use of anticonvulsant therapy for children and adults with benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus. 

Tomson T, Battino D, Bromley R, et al.  Management of Epilepsy in Pregnancy: A Report From the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force on Women and Pregnancy. Epileptic Disord 2019;21(6):497-517. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the report on the management of epilepsy in pregnancy from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE).
  • Develop recommendations for the management of epilepsy before conception and during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. 

Faculty

Full Faculty Bios

Monique Bidell, Pharm.D., BCPS
Infectious Diseases Clinical Pharmacist
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts 

Lourdes Cross, Pharm.D., BCACP, CDE
Assistant Professor
Sullivan University College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences
Louisville, Kentucky 

Quinn Czosnowski, Pharm.D., BCCCP
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, Critical Care
IU Health - Methodist Hospital
Indianapolis, Indiana 

Heather Draper, Pharm.D., BCPS
Clinical Specialist, Emergency Medicine
Mercy Health Saint Mary's
Grand Rapids, Michigan 

G. Morgan Jones, Pharm.D., BCCCP, FCCM
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Neurocritical Care
Methodist University Hospital
Memphis, Tennessee 

Yaman Kaakeh, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCNSP, CNSC, BCCCP
Partner
Salus Vitae Group
West Lafayette, Indiana 

Jamie McCarrell, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCGP, FASCP
Clinical Pharmacy Manager
BSA Health System
Amarillo, Texas 

Ashley Schenk, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCP
Cardiology Clinical Pharmacist
UK HealthCare
Lexington, Kentucky 

Trent Towne, Pharm.D., BCPS
Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Manchester University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
Fort Wayne, Indiana 

Trang Trinh, Pharm.D., M.P.H., BCPS, BCIDP
Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy
UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA 

Jon Wietholter, Pharm.D, BCPS, FCCP
Clinical Associate Professor
West Virginia University School of Pharmacy
Morgantown, West Virginia 

Content Matter Experts

Christopher Betz, Pharm.D., BCPS, FASHP, FKSHP
Professor, Department of Clinical and Administrative Sciences
Sullivan University College of Pharmacy
Cardiology Clinical Pharmacy Specialist
Jewish Hospital Rudd Heart and Lung Center
Louisville, Kentucky 

Snehal Bhatt, Pharm.D., BCPS-AQ Cardiology, FASHP, AACC
Professor of Pharmacy Practice
MCPHS University School of Pharmacy – Boston
Clinical Pharmacist
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts 

Douglas Slain, Pharm.D., B.S.Pharm., BCPS, FASHP
Professor and Infectious Diseases Clinical Specialist
West Virginia University (WVU) and WVU Hospitals and Clinics
Canonsburg, Pennsylvania 

Reviewers

Susan R. Dombrowski, M.S., R.Ph.
Anna M. Wodlinger-Jackson, Pharm.D., BCPS 

Field Testers

Dalinda Amilcka, Pharm.D., BCPS
John Austin, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Juyun Bahk, Pharm.D., BCPS
Daphne Bernardin, Pharm.D., BCPS
Lisa Boone, Pharm.D., BCPS
Amber Bush, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Carley Castelein, Pharm.D., BCPS, CPPS
Jennifer  Catlin, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Laura Celmins, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Emily Chang, Pharm. D., BCPS
Nina Chhabra, Pharm.D, BCPS, CSP
Erika Cook, Pharm.D., MBA, BCPS
Alexander Cyganowski, Pharm.D., BCPS, NCPS, AAHIVP
Patrick DeSimone, Pharm.D., BCPS
Roxana Dumitru, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Karly Erickson, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Michelle Estevez, Pharm.D., DPLA, BCPS
Stefanie Forman, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Mercedes Fraga, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCIDP, BCCCP
Julie Haase, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Sharde Hameed, Pharm.D., MPH, BCPS
Brianne Hansen, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Coleen Hart, Pharm.D, BCPS, BCCCP
Laila Hasham, Pharm.D.
Eunice Hung, Pharm. D., BCPS
Baneen Khataw, Pharm.D., BCPS
Eric Kinney, Pharm.D., BCPS
Joe Kramer, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Caroline Krohn, Pharm.D.  BCPS
Bayli Larson, Pharm.D., M.S., BCPS
Bryan Liptak, Pharm D, BCPS
Jessica Marx, Pharm.D., BCPS
Cole Matula, Pharm.D., BCPS
Stacey McCoy, Pharm.D., M.S., BCPS
Courtney McKinney, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Destiny Mishler, Pharm.D., BCPS
Kimberly Monroe, Pharm.D., BCPS
Zachary Moser, Pharm.D., M.B.A., BCPS
Nicholas Nelson, Pharm.D., BCPS
Habeeba Nizamdin, Pharm.D., BCPS
Amber  Ooley, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Laneora Sue Padgett, BSPharm, BCPS
Christine Parker, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
David Reynolds, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Matthew Ries, Pharm.D., BCPS
Alyssa Robertson, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Kathryn Rolefs, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Kaitlin Rzasa, Pharm.D., BCPS
Dana Serao, Pharm.D., BCPS
Zachary Smith, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP
Geren Thomas, Pharm.D., BCPS
Vaishali Vel, Ph.D., Pharm. D., BCPS
Catherine Wangari, Pharm.D., BCPS
August Whipple, Pharm.D., BCPS
Kelsey Zapata, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCCCP 

Disclosures

In accordance with the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education’s Standards for Commercial Support and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s Standards for Commercial Support, ASHP requires that all individuals involved in the development of activity content disclose their relevant financial relationships. A person has a relevant financial relationship if the individual of his or her spouse/partner has a financial relationship (e.g. employee, consultant, research grant recipient, speakers bureau, or stockholder) in any amount occurring the in the last 12 months with a commercial interest whose products or series may be discussed in the educational activity content over which the individual has control. The existence of these relationships is provided for the information of participants and should not be assumed to have an adverse impact on the content. 

All faculty and planners for ASHP education activities are qualified and selected by ASHP and required to disclose any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests. ASHP identifies and resolves conflicts of interest prior to an individual’s participation in development of content for an educational activity. Anyone who refuses to disclose relevant financial relationships must be disqualified from any involvement with a continuing pharmacy education activity. 

All planners, presenters, and reviewers of this session report no financial relationships relevant to this activity. 

Methods and CE Requirements

Activities consist of educational materials, assessments, and activity evaluations. In order to receive continuing pharmacy education credit, learners must:

  • Complete the attestation statement
  • Review all content
  • Complete and pass the assessments
  • Complete the evaluations 

Follow the prompts to claim, view, or print the statement of credit within 60 days after completing the activity. 

System Technical Requirements

Courses and learning activities are delivered via your Web browser and Acrobat PDF. For all activities, you should have a basic comfort level using a computer and navigating web sites. 

View the minimum technical and system requirements for learning activities. 

Development

These activities were developed by ASHP.